This open access book brings together national experts from across the Dinaric region to rigorously review IEA¿s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2019 grade four data to develop a multidimensional and culturally sensitive perspective on their TIMSS 2019 primary-level results. The Dinaric region, named after the Dinaric Alps, is located in South-eastern Europe, and stretches through Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania, and North Macedonia. IEA¿s TIMSS has been an invaluable resource for monitoring international trends in mathematics and science achievement at grades four and eight since 1995. The TIMSS 2019 administration of the test to grade four students, provided a unique opportunity for analysis within shared regional settings and enabled the construction of this first report based on international study results from the region, prepared by the National Research Coordinators in collaboration with IEA.
 This designation is without prejudice to positions on status and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.
Dr. Barbara Japelj PaveSic is a researcher at the Educational Research Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. With a background in mathematics and statistics, her area of research is the measurement of mathematics and science knowledge and statistical modeling of research data, especially with relatively new methods of symbolic data analyses and data mining. Her main research focus is rising of the national mathematics standards and opportunities to learn mathematics in schools. She has been the National Research Coordinator for all cycles of TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced and TALIS 2018 in Slovenia. She is the author of national TIMSS and TALIS reports, articles presenting results of secondary analyses of TIMSS and other educational data, involved in national projects and coauthor of textbooks for mathematics for grade 4 to 6.
Dr. Paulína KorSnáková as Senior Research and Liaison Adviser for IEA, is responsible for supporting and developing existing memberships and institutional partnerships within IEA's mission of researching education to improve learning. Prior to her various assignments at IEA since 2010, she led implementation and reporting for various international large-scale assessments at a national level in the Slovak Republic. Dr KorSnáková is an experienced teacher, lecturer and researcher and represents Slovakia on the European Educational Research Association (EERA) Council.
Dr Sabine Meinck works for the IEA in Hamburg, Germany, being head of both its Research and Analysis Unit and Sampling Unit. Since 2006, she has been involved with the sampling, weighting, variance estimation, and analysis of nearly all contemporary large-scale assessments in education. Dr Meinck provides guidance and support for research activities within the IEA, and is associated editor of the Springer journal "Large-scale Assessments in Education". Her main research interest lies with the science of cross-national large-scale assessments, and the methodological challenges of complex survey data.